The purpose of Prevent is to safeguard vulnerable people from becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism, by engaging with people who are vulnerable to radicalisation and protecting those who are being targeted by terrorist recruiters.
As one part of the CONTEST strategy, Prevent sits alongside other work that includes Pursue (stopping terrorist attacks happening in the UK and overseas), Protect (strengthen protection against a terrorist attack in the UK or overseas) and Prepare (mitigate the impact of a terrorist incident if it occurs).
Prevent deals with all forms of terrorism, including Islamist and extreme right wing, and does not focus on any one community.
Prevent prioritises working in areas where there are risks of radicalisation and offers support predominately through local community partnerships.
Through Prevent, vulnerable individuals who are identified as at risk of radicalisation can be safeguarded and supported, while also enabling those already engaged in terrorism to disengage and rehabilitate.
Referring possible cases of early stage radicalisation works in a similar way to safeguarding processes designed to protect people from gang activity, drug abuse, and physical/sexual abuse.
Our work in Prevent is world-leading. Countries across Europe and beyond have developed preventative programmes inspired by the UK’s Prevent model. This shows the growing international consensus that Prevent programmes are vital.
Key facts and figures
• 203 community-based projects were delivered in 2018/19 reaching over 142,000 participants. 47% of these projects were delivered in schools, aimed at increasing young people’s resilience to terrorist and extremist ideologies of all forms, including right wing extremism.
• Since February 2010, more than 310,000 pieces of illegal terrorist material have been removed from the internet.
• The Prevent statutory duty has prompted a significant step forward in the delivery of Prevent work in sectors. Since being launched in 2011, Prevent training has been completed over 1.1 million times to enable frontline practitioners, including teachers, to recognise the signs of radicalisation so that they know what steps to take, including, where appropriate, how to make a referral to Channel.
• Since 2012, Prevent’s voluntary and confidential Channel programme has adopted over 1,500 people considered vulnerable to exploitation from terrorist influences to a local Channel panel.
• Prevent explicitly addresses the threat posed by the far right and extreme right wing. Of the 561 individuals who were adopted to a local Channel panel in 2018/19, 210 (37%) were referred for concerns related to Islamist extremism and 254 (45%) were referred for concerns related to right wing extremism.
Delivery of Prevent
Civil Society groups: We partner with a network of civil society groups who share our common values and work to challenge extremism in local communities.
Co-ordinators: The Home Office oversees a network of Prevent co-ordinators working across the spectrum of extremism, including far right and Islamist. There are co-ordinators based in local authorities, coordinators who work directly with Higher and Further Education institutions, health coordinators and coordinators who focus on work in schools. Their work involves ensuring risks of radicalisation in the area are understood and then mobilising a response to address those risks alongside key partners, including communities, education and healthcare staff and other experts in safeguarding.
Statutory partners: Prevent is embedded into all aspects of health, education and policing, including neighbourhood and safeguarding functions and in some cases the police may be involved as they are uniquely placed to tackle terrorism.
Tackling radicalisation online
Under Prevent we are also tackling online radicalisation, including action to take down terrorist content on communication and internet service providers by working together with police in the Counter Terrorism Internet Referral Unit (CTIRU), and with companies to develop and maintain counter narratives.
Interventions and support
Prevent duty: The Prevent duty came into force as part of the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 and ensures that specified authorities have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. It covers schools, colleges, universities, health, local authorities, police, and prisons.
Channel: The Channel programme provides tailored support for a person vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism.
A referral to Channel can come from anyone who is concerned about a person they know who may be at risk, whether a family member, friend, colleague or concerned professional (through their normal safeguarding process).
All referrals are carefully assessed to see if they are suitable for Channel. For those cases where it is assessed there is a risk of radicalisation, a multi-agency Channel panel chaired by the local authority will meet to discuss the referral and decide on what tailored package of support can be offered to the individual.
Participation in Channel is voluntary and confidential and is not a criminal sanction. The type of support available is wide-ranging, and can include help with education or career advice, dealing with mental or emotional health issues, and theological or ideological mentoring.
Rehabilitation: The Desistance and Disengagement Programme is being developed as part of the Prevent strategy for individuals who are already engaging in terrorism to disengage and reintegrate safely back into society – it is vitally important to do everything we can to maintain the safety of our country and our communities.
This programme is aimed at those convicted of terrorism, or terrorism related offences, who have served their custodial sentences and have been released on licence.
It is not a replacement for any police investigation or prosecution response to individuals who have committed terrorism offences, either abroad or at home. This new programme will provide more intensive support, going beyond that provided in Channel, because of the generally higher risk nature of the participants. Unlike the Channel programme, in certain cases the support package can be mandatory although voluntary participation will always be encouraged.
Channel – additional information
Channel is a voluntary, confidential programme which operates throughout England and Wales to safeguard people identified as vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism.
It is a multi-agency process, involving partners from the local authority and offering many types of support by a range of partners including the police, education, health providers, and others. Support can range from specialist ideological mentoring to educational, vocational or mental health services.
Referring possible cases of early stage radicalisation works in a similar way to safeguarding processes designed to protect people from gang activity, drugs, and physical/sexual abuse.
Prevent and Channel: 2018/19 statistics
In 2018/19, the number of individuals discussed at a Channel panel (1,320) and then adopted as a Channel case (561) were the highest recorded. The previous high for discussed at panel was 1,306 in 2017/18. For Channel cases it was 378, in 2015/16.
In 2018/19, 10% of referrals (561) were adopted by a local Channel panel, an increase of 48% on 2017/19 (378).
Channel panels will only offer support where they consider that it is necessary and proportionate to do so. In 2018/19, 43% of those discussed at a Channel panel went on to be adopted by the Channel panel, demonstrating the process identifies genuine referrals and refers individuals on to more appropriate services where needed. In 2018/19, 49% of referrals were signposted to other services after initial assessment.
Channel addresses all forms of terrorism, including Islamist and extreme right wing. Of the 561 individuals who were adopted to a local Channel panel in 2018/19, 45% were referred for concerns related to far right extremism and 37% were referred to concerns related to Islamist extremism.
The education sector is engaged and understands the Prevent duty as shown by the high level of engagement through education sector referrals. Indeed, 33% of referrals in 2018/19 came from the education sector. This is vital given the majority of those found to need support from Channel are under the age of 20.
Key facts and figures
• In 2018/19, 5,738 were referred and of those 49% were referred to alternative support, 28% required no further action and 23% were discussed at Channel panels.
• The number of Prevent referrals decreased by 22% from 2017/18 to 2018/19 (7,318 to 5,738). However, the number of individuals adopted as a Channel case were the highest recorded, indicating higher quality referrals as this system has matured.
• In 2018/19, 38% of those cases that were adopted by a local Channel panel were as a result of referrals from the education sector.
• Of individuals adopted by a local Channel panel in 2018/19, 66% were aged 20 years or under and 88% were male.
• Participation in Channel is voluntary and confidential and is not a criminal sanction.
• The Prevent Duty came into force in 2015 and ensures that specified authorities have to pay due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism.
Who can make a referral?
A referral can come from anyone who is concerned about a person they know who may be at risk of radicalisation, whether a family member, friend, colleague or from a wide range of partners: social services, children and adult services, youth offending teams, health, police, education establishments, and places of worship and community organisations (through their normal safeguarding process).
How do I make a referral?
Anyone can make a referral to Prevent. If you are concerned that anyone you know is at risk of radicalisation, talk to the Police on 0800 789 321 or 101, or you can contact your Local Authority safeguarding team.
What happens to a referral?
All referrals are carefully assessed by the police and (in some areas) the local authority to see if they are suitable for Channel or may require another intervention such as mental health support.
If suitable, the case is discussed with all relevant partners at a Channel panel to decide what support, if any, is necessary.
Referred individuals are informed and must give consent (or via a parent or guardian if they are children) before an intervention can take place.
How does a Channel panel work?
The Channel panel is chaired by the local authority and works with multi‐agency partners to collectively assess the risk to an individual and decide whether an intervention is necessary.
If a Channel intervention is required, the panel works with local partners to develop an appropriate tailored support package. The support package is monitored closely and reviewed regularly by the Channel panel.
Who sits on a Channel panel?
The Channel panel is chaired by the local authority and can include a variety of statutory partners such as the police, children’s services, social services, education professionals and mental health care professionals.
What kind of support is offered via Channel?
The type of support available is wide-ranging, and can include help with education or career advice, dealing with mental or emotional health issues, drug/alcohol abuse, online safety training for parents and specialist mentoring from a Channel Intervention Provider.
How is data relating to Prevent referrals handled?
Information about a referral is entered onto the Prevent Case Management Tracker (PCMT) database, which is owned and managed by the police.
These records of information and any actions that are subsequently taken are maintained on the PCMT. The police apply similar processes and record similar information for other safeguarding concerns, such as child sexual exploitation, domestic abuse or human trafficking.
The method of information management enables understanding of an individual’s identified vulnerabilities and whether an intervention they have been offered is working. This also ensures that there is consistent practice across the country and enables sharing of information between Prevent officers if an individual moves to a different area (and as appropriate).
Records enable us to manage unresolved vulnerabilities and outstanding actions, and, importantly, they ensure proportionality, acting only where support is necessary and beneficial to the individual. All records held are subject to strict legal requirements; they are monitored regularly and deleted when it is no longer necessary to keep them.